Longest rivers in Europe: The Rivers That Flow Through Europe’s Heart

Longest Rivers in Europe

Europe’s landscape is etched and molded by some of the world’s most iconic rivers. These waterways have played a pivotal role throughout history, facilitating transport and trade, providing water for agriculture and industry, and even determining national borders.

Some of Europe’s rivers are known across the globe – the Danube winds its way across Central and Eastern Europe, the Rhine flows through several major European countries, and the Volga is the national river of Russia. But in this land of rivers, which ones are the longest?

The Top 10 Longest Rivers in Europe

1. Volga – 3,531 km

The Volga is not only Europe’s longest river, but one of the great rivers of the world. It flows through central Russia, acting as a vital commercial waterway. The Volga begins at the Valdai Hills, casts northwest into a reservoir, then turns southeast toward the Caspian Sea.

Its major cities include Tver, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and Volgograd. The Volga is crucial for Russia’s economy, with river ports and traffic carrying vast quantities of oil, stones, timber and more.

2. Danube – 2,860 km

Originating in Germany’s Black Forest and flowing eastwards to the Black Sea, the Danube crosses more countries than any other European river. This includes Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine.

Major cities like Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade lie on its banks. The Danube has facilitated trade since antiquity and continues to be an important transport route today.

3. Dnieper – 2,201 km

Rising in Russia, the Dnieper flows southwards through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. The river and associated reservoirs sustain Ukraine’s agriculture and industries.

It has a storied history, with the river forming part of the route from the Varangians to the Greeks in medieval times. The Dnieper’s major cities include Smolensk, Kiev, Dnipro, and Kherson.

Dnieper river

4. Don – 1,970 km

Also beginning in Russia, the Don takes a looping path south-east to the Sea of Azov and Black Sea. An important commercial waterway, the Don River Basin supports Russian coal mining and heavy manufacturing industries. It flows through major hubs like Volgograd before reaching the Port of Rostov, a key maritime gateway.

5. Dniester – 1,362 km

This river forms part of the border between Moldova and Ukraine. It rises in Ukraine’s Carpathian Mountains and empties into the Black Sea. The Dniester is a key water supply for Moldova and Southern Ukraine, used for hydroelectric power and irrigation for orchards and vineyards.

6. Vistula – 1,047 km

Poland’s chief river, the Vistula begins in the Carpathian Mountains and winds north across the country to the Baltic Sea and Gdańsk Bay. It passes historic cities like Krakow and Warsaw. The Vistula is navigable for much of its length and has facilitated trade in Poland since 966 AD.

7. Rhine – 1,230 km

One of Europe’s most iconic rivers, the Rhine begins in Switzerland’s Alps and journeys north through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea.

The river and associated waterways link major ports like Rotterdam to Belgium, Austria, France, and further inland via Germany’s Ruhr region. It passes famed wine regions and medieval castles as it flows through Basel, Strasbourg, Cologne, Bonn, and other destinations.

Rhine river

8. Elbe – 1,094 km

Starting in the Czech Republic’s Krkonoše Mountains, the Elbe cuts northwards through Germany to the North Sea port of Cuxhaven. It passes through Prague and the historic cities of Dresden and Hamburg. This navigable river has been an important trade artery since the Middle Ages.

9. Oder (Odra) – 854 km

Also rising in Czechia, the Oder traces the border between Poland and Germany northwards to the Baltic Sea at the island of Usedom. It facilitates drainage and irrigation for agriculture and provides passage for shipborne trade, including timber rafts. Wrocław and Szczecin are among its major cities.

10. Po – 652 km

Italy’s longest river, the Po accounts for over a third of the country’s water resources. Rising in the Cottian Alps, it flows east across northern Italy to the Adriatic Sea.

The Po Valley is a major agricultural region, and the river supports diverse industries in Turin, Milan, Cremona, Mantua, and Ferrara. As a vital water supply for over 16 million people, preserving Po River ecosystems is crucial.

Snaking Through the Continent

Europe’s longest rivers have helped shape borders, facilitate key trade routes, supply water, and build iconic cities across the continent. Though facing pollution and impacts of climate change, these mighty rivers continue to sustain economies, agriculture, industries, transport and livelihoods. Protecting critical fluvial ecosystems preserves Europe’s heritage for its people and wildlife.

So next time you cross European borders, consider that one of these grand waterways may be passing beneath your feet, linking distant lands on its long journey to distant seas.


Which is the longest river in Europe?

The Volga River is the longest river in Europe. It flows 3,531 km through central Russia before emptying into the Caspian Sea.

Where does the Danube River start and end?

The Danube River originates in Germany’s Black Forest and flows approximately 2,860 km to the Black Sea. It passes through 10 countries: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine.

What major cities are located on the Rhine River?

Some major cities located on the Rhine River include Basel, Strasbourg, Cologne, Bonn and Rotterdam. The Rhine flows approximately 1,230 km from Switzerland through Germany and the Netherlands.

Where do the Vistula and Oder Rivers start and end?

The Vistula River starts in the Carpathian Mountains in Poland and flows 1,047 km north through the country to the Baltic Sea. The Oder River rises in the Czech Republic then forms part of the border between Poland and Germany, joining the Baltic Sea after 854 km.

What sea does the Dnieper River flow into?

The Dnieper River, with a length of 2,201 km, originates in Russia then flows southwards through Belarus and Ukraine into the Black Sea.

What countries does the Danube River pass through?

The Danube passes through 10 European countries – Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and Ukraine. More countries than any other European river.

Where do Europe’s longest rivers originate?

The longest rivers in Europe mostly originate in and flow through Russia and East-Central Europe. The Volga, Europe’s longest river, rises in north-central Russia. Others like the Danube and Oder start in various mountain ranges of central Europe.

Why are rivers like the Rhine important?

Rivers like the Rhine have been crucial trade transportation routes since medieval times. The Rhine links major ports and cities from Switzerland to the North Sea. Rivers also supply water for agriculture and industry in Europe.

Which European countries does the Rhine flow through?

The Rhine flows through Switzerland, Germany and The Netherlands on its 1,230 km journey from the Swiss Alps to the North Sea.

What threats do European rivers face today?

Major rivers in Europe face pollution, excessive water use/diversion, and ecosystem impacts from climate change. Protecting free-flowing rivers is crucial for economies, wildlife and people across Europe.